Maternal Generation I: Elizabeth Hill married William Pinley
Random Excess Notes on Boyle & HillThe American Penleys Side Steps along the way Collected Notes and Questions for further
Arrival on the Bona Nova
Before documenting that the marriage of Edward and Hannah Hill took place in England before the voyage to Virginia, an exhaustive analysis of the population that arrived on The Bona Nova with Hannah was done to determine Hannah's status upon arrival. After learning how the British swept the streets and jails clean of impoverished women, debtors, and orphans by loading up the ships bound for Virginia, curiosity begged to know if Hannah came to Virginia by force, or of her own free will.
It is now seen that Edward Hill traveled to Virginia on a 1619 Bona Nova voyage shortly after their marriage (probably to prepare a home), and he returned to bring Hannah over on the first Bona Nova voyage of 1620. More details are provided in the chapter on Edward Hill to follow.
On the fact filled 1624/5 Muster of the Inhabitants of Virginia, only 28 survivors listed their ship of arrival as the 1620 Bona Nova. It is now known that the Bona Nova brought passengers at least twice in 1620, so all the calculations are skewed, but still provide historical context for Edward and Hannah’s life.
By the time of the 1624/5 Muster, only six other women who came on the Bona Nova had survived the calamities in Virginia. None of the surviving women from The Bona Nova were servants, all six were married to “Ancient Planters” who had arrived in Virginia by 1616, and three had children borne in Virginia. Except Mrs. Banum (age 36), the women were aged between 17 and 20 years old when they arrived.
Seven men who arrived on a 1620 Bona Nova voyage were landowners who headed their own musters by 1624. Two additional men were living as free men in the homes of family members: Leonard Mountney living with his brother Alexander Mountney (who would become Hannah’s third husband), and Timothy Stockton living with his father, the minister at Elizabeth City, Jonas Stockton. Three other free men are listed as living in the household of the Minister Stockton. William Hampton is listed as a free man living at the home of Edwin Waters with his wife Joane, but he is listed again a few pages later as head of his own muster.
Thomas and Alice Lane are the only couple from the Bona Nova voyages who do not appear to be masters of their own household; they are found on the muster of Mr. Edwin Waters, but are not designated as servants. Thomas Lane is found on the 1623/4 List of the Living, no Alice Lane is listed as a survivor. Perhaps their marriage took place after the massacre. The Lanes may have moved to the Waters’ plantation for safety after the 1622/3 massacre, as colonists were forced to give up their outer lying settlements to consolidate at eight major settlements for easier defense. There is a Nethaniel Laine listed as killed in the Massacre at Warwick Squeak, within the Elizabeth City Corporation. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Waters were taken captive by the Indians at Blount Point on that day, but later escaped and were “carried” to safety at Elizabeth City. No land patent is found for Thomas Lane as an Ancient Planter although he was entitled to either 50 or 100 acres. The Lanes may have returned to England after a harrowing experience during the Massacre at one of the remote plantations.
Of the 1624/5 survivors who arrived on The Bona Nova without declaring a date of arrival, nine were servants, and nine were heads of their own muster, none of these were women.
Twelve male passengers of the 1620 Bona Nova were documented as landowners or free men. In addition, land deeds state that Ancient Planter Rawleigh Crawshaw’s wife arrived on the 1620 Bona Nova with a servant, but she returned to England or perished before the List of the Living in 1623/4.
Even before the documentation of Hannah and Edward’s marriage in England, it had been concluded that Hannah was not on board one of the ships loaded with "marriageable women" or street urchins. The women with Hannah on The Bona Nova appeared to have been married before the voyage, or went to Virginia for marriages arranged in advance. All married established landowners, Ancient Planters
The Ancient Planters Edward Hill appears to meet all the criteria as an Ancient Planter, but no declaration has been found. Our Edward Hill’s only entry on the comprehensive and revealing 1624/5 Virginia Muster is under “A list of the Burialles in Elizabeth Citty, 1624 Edward Hill Maye 15”. With no other data about Hill provided in the 1624/5 Muster, and his land grant not published, Cavaliers and Pioneers omitted him from their list of Ancient Planters. His “first divident” was 100 acres, which indicates his arrival before 1616. His land grant once appeared in the earliest pages of Land Book I. By 1619, our Edward Hill was seated on a 100 acre plantation in Kecoughtan. His neighbor on the west, Ancient Planter Thomas Spelman, would become Hannah’s second husband. His neighbor to the east was Ancient Planter Alexander Mountney, who would become Hannah’s third husband. Even before they each married our Hannah Boyle, their lives were deeply entwined in the struggle for survival in the wilderness. Those designated as Ancient Planters were granted various amounts of land and privileges determined by their year of arrival, whether or not they owned stock in the Virginia Company, and determination of who paid for their passage. Published sources often erroneously refer to the Ancient Planters as one group with identical privileges. Colonists who were transported at their own costs and charges before the departure of Governor Dale in 1616, and remained three years after Dale’s departure were to be granted 100 acres of land upon the “first division”, they and their descendants were to be exempt from military service and from all taxes except to the church. The Ancient Planters chose their land in 1619, Hill was granted 100 acres, indicating his arrival before 1616. The Company was slow to deliver the land patents, and eventually, survival of the great massacre of 1622/3 was added to the list of qualifications. Hill, Spelman and Mountney all survived the massacre, though Edward Hill died fourteen months later. An Ancient Planter who was transported at company cost before Dales’s departure (Alexander Mountney) also received 100 acres, but was required to pay an annual rent of one shilling per 50 acres to maintain ownership of his land. Ancient Planters who arrived at their own cost after Dale’s departure (Thomas Spelman) were granted 50 acres and was required to pay the annual rent. Those who were transported at company cost after Dale’s departure qualified for only 25 acres. On November 11, 1618, the Council in London ordered that the colony be divided into four "corporations" for the purpose of local administration with each to be a parish of the Church. In January of 1619/20, the Rolfe letter reports “All the Ancient Planters being sett free haue chosen place for their dividend according to the Comyssion. Wch giueth all greate content, for now knowing their owne land, they strive and are prpared to build houses §&§ to cleere their ground ready to plant, wch giveth the * * * greate incouragemt, and the greatest hope to make the Colony florrish that ever yet happened to them.” ( Rolfe, Records of the Virginia Company, page 241) The 1619 Rolfe letter indicates the Ancient Planters were allowed to choose their plantations. Alexander Mountney had been in Kecoughtan as early as 1611, and knew the area well. They may have chosen to live near each other because of trust, friendship or other priorities.
In January of 1619/20, the Rolfe letter reports “All the Ancient Planters being sett free have chosen place for their dividend according to the Comyssion. Wch giueth all greate content, for now knowing their owne land, they strive and are prpared to build houses §&§ to cleere their ground ready to plant, wch giveth the * * * greate incouragemt, and the greatest hope to make the Colony florrish that ever yet happened to them.” ( Rolfe, Records of the Virginia Company, page 241) Edward Hill’s “first divident” of land was 100 acres, indicating his arrival in Virginia before 1616. Thomas Spelman arrived during 1617, and therefore his “first divident” was only 50 acres. Mountney arrived in 1610, as one of the “Company’s Men”, and received 100 acres as an Ancient Planter. Both the Spelman and Mountney patents stipulated that annual rent of one shilling per 50 acres was due. The taxable status of Hill’s land is not known. The Mountneys could have arranged to pay annual rent due on the land continuously for the eighteen years after Hill’s death, but the harsh times in Virginia make this unlikely. The Mountneys were in charge of the Community Store at Accomack, they were not land owners, and do not appear wealthy. Taxes and/or rent on barren land in Elizabeth City may not have been a priority budget item. At the first meeting of Virginia’s House of Burgesses in 1619, a petition was sent to England: “That the grants of land made to the ancient planters be confirmed, so that they might not be disturbed by any grants now or later to be made to others; .....that the ancient planters, both those who had come at their own cost and at that of the company, might receive their second, third, and later divisions of land in as large and free manner as any other planters”. The Virginia Company seemed hesitant to relinquish permanent land ownership to the Ancient Planters, even long after the initial promise was made by Governor Thomas Dale in 1616. The order was issued in 1618, the residents chose their property in 1619. Compounding the reluctance of the Virginia Company were the slow communications of the day, the devastating Massacre of 1622/3, the resulting famine and disease. Eventually, the requirement of surviving the Massacre was added to the requirements for Ancient Planter status, allowing them to redistribute the land among the survivors. In 1624, King James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company and converted Virginia to a royal colony, so most of the patents for these original land grants were not certified until the summer of 1624, after Edward Hill’s death. Hill’s grant was certified in spite of his death, however, evidenced when it was sold in 1642. Sadly, by the time most of the Ancient Planter land grants were certified in 1624, the soil was typically exhausted by tobacco. At the first meeting of Virginia’s House of Burgesses in 1619, a petition was sent to England: “That the grants of land made to the ancient planters be confirmed, so that they might not be disturbed by any grants now or later to be made to others; .....that the ancient planters, both those who had come at their own cost and at that of the company, might receive their second, third, and later divisions of land in as large and free manner as any other planters”. All Ancient Planters were not the same, there were distinctions. In order for Edward Hill to qualify for 100 acres on his “first divident”, he had to arrive before Governor Dale’s 1616 departure and remain three years after Dale’s departure. Those who paid for their own transportation before 1616 paid no annual rent, and were to be forever free from military service. Ancient Planters who came after 1616, such as Thomas Spelman, or whose transportation was paid by the Virginia Company, such as Alexander Mountney, were required to pay an annual fee of one shilling per fifty acres. Those who arrived after Dale’s departure, such as Thomas Spelman who arrived in 1617, were only entitled to 50 acres on their “first divident”. A phrase in Mountney’s grant indicated the rent was due “whereon it is grounded Yeilding“.
Collected Notes and Questions for further Research I. Hill Ancestry
Other Hills in Virginia Point #1: Rebecca Rosse-- Hugh Hall?-- Very interesting! Looking at Hugh Hill's kids??? Hills on List of Living: Under "More at Elizabeth Citty": (I'm ignoring my Hills, Edward, Hannah, Elizabeth: no mystery) Point #2: Frances Hill --definitely Hugh's son Point #3: John Hill --I think not related to George Hill, servant Point #4: William Hill, Thomas Hill --no obvious connection, not much data Point #1: Rebecca Rosse, 2 sons Rosse on List of the Living: Under "West & Sherlow Hundred" Looking at Hugh Hill's kids? On the next reliable census, the 1624/1625 Muster of the Inhabitants of Virginia: Rebecca Rose, Widdow is listed, age 50, arrival on The Marygold, 1619, at West and Sherley Hundred, Charles Cittie, with two children, Jane Hill, and Marmaduke Hill, aged 14 and 11 years, arriving on the same Marygold. Were Jane and Marmaduke mistakenly called "2 sons Rosse" on the Living List, or did she take them in as orphans after her own children died? Hugh Hill had children by those names, where was Hugh after the Massacre? Was Hugh Hill mistakenly recorded as the Hugh Hall under "More at Elizabeth Citie"? If so, why was he at the fort in Elizabeth when his children were at the Shurley Hundred in Charles City? There is no Hugh Hall or Hugh Hill on the 1624/1625 Muster, he died, or went back to England.
To add to the puzzle, Purse and Person, Volume 3, page 844, states that one Richard Biggs died in 1625, and left land at Sherley Hundred to his sister, Rebecca Rose. (Richard Biggs is found with a family on the List of the Living at Sherley Hundred, only five names above Rebecca Rose: (Richard Biggs; Mrs. Biggs; sons William, Thomas, Richard Biggs). This would indicate that Rebecca Rose' maiden name was Biggs, otherwise one might connect her as an older daughter of George Hill, which would explain the presence of Hugh's children in her household. Could Rebecca Rose have been Richard Biggs' sister-in-law instead of sister? The January 22, 1624/1625 Muster for Richard Biggs, who arrived in 1610, mentions his wife Sarah, age 35, son Richard, age 3, "his cozen" Thomas Turner, age 11, and "his cozen" Susan Old, age 10. Wife Sarah and his two "cozens" all arrived on the 1616 Marygold, as did Rebecca Rose and Jane and Marmaduke Hill. (2 Turners died in Massacre) Richard Biggs' will was written in August, 1625, and probated the next month. This muster is a perfect example of the broken families and displaced children in the aftermath of the 1622 Massacre. Were there any Hill family members on the 1616 Marygold?
Point #2: Frances Hill, age 22, Bona Nova, 1619 is found at Elizabeth Cittie, seemingly with 15 other soldiers on the muster of Sargent William Barry This looks like the barracks, and Francis was a soldier (nine of the other men also came on the Bona Nova, 1619, including Sargent Barry; four came on the Abigail, 1621; one on the Hopewell, 1624; one on the Jonathan, 1619). They are not listed as servants. A soldier status would be appropriate for George Hill's grandson, especially after the massacre. This should be Hugh's son who arrived with Hugh on the 1619 Bona Nova.
Point #3: John Hill, age 26, is found as a servant (Bona Nova, 1620) on the Banum/Sweete Muster at Elizabeth Cittie, p. 56. Too young to be George's son, this Hill is the right age to be Hugh's son. But Gentleman George Hill's grandson should not have been a servant by 1624. Labor was in extreme shortage, and if employed by anyone, it would have more likely by his Uncle Edward, a documented landowner. On the List of the Living, he is located between Mr. and Mrs. Banum. PenleyPearls believes this John Hill is not connected to George or our Edward Hill.
Point #4: Thomas Hill and William Hill: both found on the "List of the Living", both under "More at Elizabeth Cittie", not near Edward, Hannah, and Elizabeth Hill. Neither Thomas or William is documented on the more data packed 1624/1625 Muster, so they went back to England, or died in the aftermath of the 1622 Massacre. There is a Robart Hill and a Tristam Hill listed as endorsers of The Second Charter of Virginia, May 23, 1609. Robart Hill invested 87£ 10s. Some of those listed were only investors, and some were actual passengers to Virginia. All of the early investors in the Virginia Company can be viewed at the valuable Virtual Jamestown website. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/adventurers/search_adventurers.html